Current treatments/therapies WET & DRY
AMD in general
Diet: there is mounting evidence suggesting diet plays an important role in AMD. Consumption of vegetables (e.g. spinach), and oily fish (e.g salmon) are associated with better prognosis in AMD. Foods linked to cardiovascular disease (e.g saturated fats) are associated with poorer prognosis.
Supplements: The Age-Related Eye Disease study concluded that patients with an early-advanced level of AMD may benefit from antioxidant supplements if non-smokers.
Surgery: trials involving macular translocation and RPE cell transplantation are ongoing at many centres around the world.
There are currently no therapies for dry AMD.
Photodynamic Therapy (2000): or PDT involves an intravenous injection of the dye followed by laser treatment of the CNVM. Repeat sessions are necessary and average 3 per patient. This method has been mostly superseded by the VEGF inhibitors.
VEGF inhibitors (2004-2007): VEGF is a potent stimulus for neovascularisation in the eye. Several anti-VEGF treatments have been proven to alter the course of wet AMD. They are administered by intravitreal injection:
- Pegaptanib (Macugen®): is an RNA aptamer.
- Ranibizumab (Lucentis®): a monoclonal antibody fragment
- Bevacizumab (Avastin®): a full monclonal antibody against. Approved by the FDA for the treatment of colorectal cancer and lung cancer but has been used off-label for treatment of AMD.